Monday, September 30, 2019
Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Hector J. Roman Walden University Academic Integrity and Plagiarism This paper contains the policies and expectations of the normal behavior as a student at Walden University. These are guidelines to follow not only as an online learner bur as a person. Also, will explain the prohibitions and consequences of committing plagiarism. Ã¢â¬Å"Try not to become a man of success but rather to become a man of value. Ã¢â¬Å"(Albert Einstein). Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Integrity is moral behavior. When we were kids, our fathers started to teach us to talk, walk, express ourselves and how to behave.To be respectful to other people, follow the rules and always trying to do the right thing was and is a top priority. Those words and actions still have a meaning. In an academic environment, those rules apply as well. Doing wrong was and always has been punishable and, for a student pursuing a doctoral degree can be devastating. Nontraditional education like online learning or distance education can put any student in a compromising position and for that, Walden University puts a lot of emphasis on academic integrity.In the Oxford American College Dictionary, a meaning of the word integrity is defined as the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles. To acknowledge this belief is a first step that can lead to success and Walden University StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook reassures students its importance. To be respectful and honest are fundamental ideals. Integrity should be important for all students and faculty, as well. Having integrity will help in the development of a character. In an online learning environment, even absorbing those values and ideals, can put a student in a difficult situation unconsciously or by accident.Not knowing cannot prevent you from falling short and this matter can and will lead to plagiarism. Plagiarism is copying or stealing someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work and makes it your own. Walden University Ã¢â¬â¢s Handbook explains it as the use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source. Matthews and Mathews (2008) explain plagiarism as the act of taking words or ideas that someone else has written and trying to present them as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Another term to look out in that same direction is self-plagiarism.Self-plagiarism is rewriting you own work. Self-plagiarism is presented in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association as a practice of presenting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own previously published work as though it were new. In other is stealing intellectual property. The best way to avoid plagiarism is to acknowledge the source. When doing online research you can find a great amount of articles, websites, or electronics books about the same topic. The tendency is to think that the instructor or teacher cannot or could not find the source. That is not true.Technological resources like Turnitin or Walden Writing CenterÃ¢â¬â ¢s Grammarly can give you the tools needed to prevent plagiarism and not fail. These applications are used to search any suspicious expressions. StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook recommended to contact a faculty mentor, course instructor, or academic advisor. In other words, academic integrity and plagiarism goes hand in hand. To be aware and apply these aspects is another step that can lead you to a successful academic and working career. Also, will show you as a genuine person creative enough to contribute with quality ideas.Those same ideas will be used as a reference in the future. As a prospective author, you will want to be recognized and your thoughts used as reference, as well. References Matthews, J. , and Matthews, R. (2008). Sccessful Scientific Writing : A Step-by-step Guide for the Biological and Medical Sciences Success eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Oxford American College Dictionary. (2002). Copyright Ã © 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) Wal den University StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook retrieved from www. waldenu. edu
Posted by Unknown at 1:19 PM
Sunday, September 29, 2019
First IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to talk about my favorite TV show. Its name is Prison Break. It all talks about someone whose name is Michel Scofeeld and a very big company in the U.S.A. this company tried to kill his brother by a very dangerous way. The make him seems as the killer of the president brother. They set everything for him to be arrested by this charge. Everybody thought he killed him except his wife and his brother who is our hero. They took him to the prison to set for killing because what he has done or I should say what they think he has done. His brother didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay watching that. He was an engineer. He planed for his brother escape from the prison. He did a very big tattoo in his body which was not just a big tattoo; it was a very big map for one of the biggest prisons in the world in which nobody ever could escape it. The brother tried to steel a bank to get to the prison in which his brother is. He could make it and got to the prison near his brother. He has planned for everything even after they run away. At the end of the first season he could get his brother out of the prison, but the problem was that many people was killed in that operation, not only that the other problem is that ten of the biggest criminal in the U.S.A has escaped with them. The brother (the hero) will never forgive himself about what he has done. A nurse who helped them escape did face so many problems for her and her father, because her father was the governor of that city. He got fired from his job. After a little bit they found him dead in his flat. The company killed him because he knew very dangerous information about them. Any way the hero of our TV show didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it at the end. He died to save his wife from the danger. I think I have to remind you that he got married from the nurse who helped him escape from the prison. The second TV show that I want to talk about is 24. It is very famous series it has eight seasons every one has 24 episodes. It all talks about a very big organization which tries to make the U.S.A falls down by killing the people of it. Our hero for this TV show is Jack Bour. He is a federal agent with a very big organization called C.T.U. In the beginning he worked over there as a normal agent and after that he changed to be the one who saved his own country so many times. In the first attempt for the terrorist to attack the U.S.A they kidnapped his daughter and wife. He did every possible thing for him to save his family. In the end of the season after he has saved his family someone who Jack trusted betrayed him. She was one of the terrorists she tried to run away from C.T.U by killing his wife in the C.T.U building. But Jack felt that very late. It is all make him crazy after losing his wife. He was about to kill that woman who killed his wife and who trusted. The first season ended with the falling of his tear. The fist and the second seasons are the only seasons which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about Islam organization. In the beginning I liked it but at the end I really felt so bad in some views. By the way every one who Jack loved has been killed by those people to be eliminated. But the really couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill Jack because he was very strong in facing people using weapons.
Posted by Unknown at 12:49 PM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
LEGAL ASPECTS OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1
LEGAL ASPECTS OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT - Essay Example Socio-political instabilities in the world can severely affect the growth and profitability of the hospitality industry. Example: during 2009-2012 time period the profitability of most of the businesses in the world declined. Terrorist attacks in the USA, persisting European sovereign debt crisis, conflicts in the Middle East and the economic slowdown in Asia are expected to negatively affect the performances of hospitality industry. However according to the statistical estimations the demand for the hotels and the quality of the hospitality services continued to increase in year 2012. In fact the total number of hotel rooms in the world is expected to reach approximately 30 million and the room stock of hotel chains is expected increase up to 20 million by year 2030 (Slattery, 1999). Moreover, hotel industry is largely associated with the contemporary living styles of the people. Increasing public demand for recreational activities largely contribute to the growth of hotel industry. Therefore the employment opportunities in this industry are secure compared to the other sectors. Diversity of the industry is evident in the types of businesses that are currently operating in the world. Example: Free-Standing Hospitality Businesses (example: Hotels, Holiday centers, Quasi hotels, Cruise ships, Bars and Restaurants), Hospitality in Leisure Venues (example: Casinos, Bingo clubs, Night clubs, Cinemas and Theatres), Hospitality in Travel Venues (example: Airports, Railway stations, Bus stations and Ferry terminals) and Subsidized Hospitality (example: workplaces, Education institutes, Military, Custodial, Retailers) (Slattery, 2002). This report compiles the legal aspects of managing the drowning in hotel swimming pools. Drowning in swimming pools is recognized as a leading cause of unintentional fatal injuries occurring in the United States. Majority of the child deaths in the country are caused by drowning in residential swimming pools. For hoteliers, various aquat ic vessels such as vortex or current pools, wave pools and recreational rivers are valuable income generating opportunities. In general, large numbers of guests are annually attracted to the aquatic sports facilities available in the hotels such as the Disney resorts. A considerable proportion of these guests are children and minor. Therefore the government of the United States has mandated a set of safety requirements for aquatic sports facilities. These safety measures are the internationally recognized minimum requirements for structure, maintenance and functioning of the swimming pools. Following these standards is considered as a legal duty of the public swimming pool managers. This paper evaluates the importance of legal framework which applies to the hotel swimming poolsÃ¢â¬â¢ security system in the United States. This paper is organized in the following order. Ã¢â¬Å"BackgroundÃ¢â¬ chapter describes the importance of Aquatic Recreation Facility to hospitality industry a nd the statistical significance of drowning in the United States. Ã¢â¬Å"Literature reviewÃ¢â¬ describes the legal framework which is aimed at preventing the drowning related deaths and fatal injuries. Finally, the Ã¢â¬Å"DiscussionÃ¢â¬ chapter scrutinizes the importance of following the swimming pool safety standards and legal implications of neglecting these regulations by hoteliers. Background Importance of the Aquatic Sports Facilities in Marketing Swimming is a very
Posted by Unknown at 11:38 AM
Friday, September 27, 2019
Controlling Organized Crime - Essay Example This can lead to vast problems such as destabilizing different economies and interference in public processes by buying way through elections and putting corrupt officials in charge. Organized crime has spread its wings all over the world; illegal items might be exported from one country to another, and then sold in a third. This has really weakened the system and has created problems not only for the governments, but for the local people as well. (Organized Crime) Organized crime can cause serious socio-economic problems in whichever country it is operating. Violence is one of the major issues related to this. Crime kingpins will do whatever they can to protect their empire, and included in this is the use of violence, which usually involves firearms. Normally, these crime families are trying to kill the competition, so their aggression is pointed towards each other. But innocent victims get caught in the crossfire, and hundreds of casualties occur due to this. Moreover, these acts of violence are also used against the local population, in order to scare them and make them live in fear, so that the criminals can establish their control in a region. Illegal trafficking of drugs such as marijuana, heroin and cocaine, as discussed earlier, is also practiced by organized crime, and has caused serious issues everywhere. It is the main focus of the mafia, and their main source of income. Due to this marketing of said drugs, incidents of assails, homicides, and stealing property are not uncommon at all. These acts of violence are mainly results of tussle of control over regions between two crime families, or individuals trying to purchase drugs and make their way into this market. The consequences of this massive drug trade are not just limited to this; due to drug trafficking all over the world, a larger number of people are now suffering from adverse health effects of these drugs, which includes HIV. Other than the illegal drug trade, organized crime has found its way into the financial structure of different countries, and is harming it at an alarming rate. Credit card and mortgage fraud are the most ordinary of these crimes, and are practiced at a superior rate. Securities fraud such as crimes in the stock market and frauds related to marketing schemes such as telemarketing fraud ruin the lives of individuals and investors. For example, in some third world countries, due to the presence of land mafia and other several fraudulent cases, investors suffer from heavy losses, and less likely to continue their projects there. Money laundering is heavily practiced by many criminal organizations and it has planted a big dent on economic structures, worldwide. Money laundering normally comprises the use of a number of financial facilities such as banks, exchange and insurance companies etc. that can have adverse reactions on a number of institutions. As a result, services of lawyers, accountant and investment brokers are required, who accidentally o r on purpose assist the laundering process. Criminal organizations are capable of controlling financial systems and bribe corrupt officials of private or public institutions to aid with money laundering. This damages the financial structure of a region and also investors and the people lose confidence in the involved financial institutions. (Socio-economic Harms of Organized Crime) Many criminals organizations are said to have established working relations with law enforcement agencies. The system becomes
Posted by Unknown at 10:29 AM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Math and what it is focused on - Personal Statement Example I explained to them that by cutting a dot on the mobius band I could return to this point by continuing to go forward in one direction. I gave the pupils addition items like two plus three and five minus one after I demonstrate to them how to add and deduct numbers. I taught them how to add and deduct it is the basic requirement the pupils must conquer. Since I taught them how use the adding and deducting of basic numbers in mathematics, I know that when be promoted the next levels of grade school., the will apply what I have been painstakingly teaching them every hour of every day. In fact, some day in the future, when they will become young men and women, some will become engineers and others will become accountants. Other pupils of mine will become teachers like me so that they will inculcate in their children pupils the latest trends of math computations that are an offshoot or improvement over my teaching methods. I gave the pupils ten numbers on adding numbers that range from one to twenty for two days. I then gave the pupils ten numbers on deducting numbers that range from one to twenty. This is because I want them to master addition. Mathematics is best learned by DOING. Repetition of the same function like adding and deducting makes one an expert for as the saying goes, experience is the best teacher. Mastery of adding and deducting not only includes getting a correct answer but also having a correct answer in as less time as possible. At first, I could feel their resistance to even look at math problems but I still pursued my objective to let them know the rudiments of math computations for I know that they will thank me in the end when they are young men and women. In fact, I know that some of them will be computer experts where proficiency in math is a requirement.I taught them to master or specialize adding and deducting numbers from one to twenty because this is the basic requirement for them to hurdle before then can work on higher and more complex numbers. I have to teach them to specialize in adding and deducting so that they can apply what they learned to real life situations. They will know how to add and deduct numbers such as how much to pay for a chocolate bar or a softdrink or even how much the pupil will ask as increase in allowance because food items in the school canteen have increased. Many of our present day businessmen, engineers and even plain housewives need the rudiments and the simple complexities of the math in order not only to solve daily math problems but also to entertain themselves by pondering over the intricacies of solving math questions. Their math understanding will be needed as they compute for higher math problems like geometry and like what is explained when they use the geoboard. The pupils will learn how to identify the different shapes of figures like the rectangle, square, triangle, octagon, pentagon and others. UNIT 3I have taught that students based how to add and deduct math numbers based on the mental capacity of the pupil. There are students who love math so that they spend a lot of time solving math problems. These students learn math
Posted by Unknown at 4:25 PM
Journal Entry - Assignment Example It is located beside a university but is a very restricted area. Only the employees can get into the facility and of course, the scientists as security personnel as well. This area is highly mysterious because of the nature of its research which is to communicate and understand extra terrestrial beings with the objective of finally meeting one someday. It has mixed reactions of awe and encouragement as well as condescension and ridicule of its research from the scientific community due to the controversial nature of its research. Everyone however agrees that it is in engage in cutting edge research and that its scientists are the most brilliant in the field. Again, I would like to have a character that everyone can relate but is interesting. I would like the character to be a male though. He should be related to the academe so that we could relate as students. He could be a student or to make the character interesting, a professor. A professor that is scientist as well and he must be a little queer to add mystery and interest to the character. He should be endeavouring some endeavour that very little people understands. He may be a little strange but he is brilliant. And of course as many brilliant people often complain, he is misunderstood. And this endeavour or research of his made him look queer or taken as crazy by people around him. Later however, he is vindicated because he proved that he is right. He must have a counterpart to complete a story. After all, a hero is nothing without a villain. So I would make another character which is as queer as a professor and a scientist. That would be a alien. The alien is a pilot and just lik e us looking for another planet with intelligent beings. Yes he would come in peace but will add some twist later to make the story interesting. The setting/s and characters should be connected to the plot. If I have a laboratory,
Posted by Unknown at 12:42 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Negotiation and Decision Making Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Negotiation and Decision Making Strategy - Essay Example is enjoying increased sales but along with that success comes the need to obtain additional warehouse space. In this market, competition is fierce among those on the waiting list, and the rates are high. Financial issues include signing premiums, common area maintenance (CAM) charges, and term commitments of at least one year. The company has been notified that there is an opening at the industrial sight where it has been on the waiting list for several months. The property management company will be attempting to obtain the highest lease rate for the longest possible term, with as many add-on charges as possible. The goal of this negotiation will be to obtain the needed space without overpaying on the lease itself, reduce the amounts of any extra charges, and obtain a lease term that is long enough to satisfy the property management company without locking ABC Ltd. into space it may outgrow in the next seven years. The negotiation will take place in the conference room at the manage ment company's corporate headquarters, with the Commercial Division Manager, Ms. Fuentes. 1. Body Language - In terms of aiding or hindering communication, body language can be a very powerful. The improper use of eye contact, body positioning and other nonverbal cues can cause the other party to think that you are not listening, don't agree, or are disinterested. 2. 2. Vocal Delivery - Successful communication is not just about what you say, but how you say it as well. There are many lists of phrases or attitudes that block communication, including things like being rude, patronizing, or sarcastic. The bottom line is to communicate understanding and a cooperative attitude. 3. Stress - In any negotiation, individual stress can cause communication to be misinterpreted or not received at all. It is very important that an individual be calm and not suffer anxiety during the course of a negotiation so that he or she can truly hear what the other side is saying and form the appropriate connection that leads to a successful conclusion. 4. My Actions - In this negotiation with the property management company, it will be important that I form a good connection with Ms. Fuentes. I am ultimately going to be trying to emerge with an equitable arrangement that meets her client's needs as well as that of my own company. To accomplish this goal, I will need to demonstrate that I am an effective and engaged communicator and avoid giving negative impressions that block the process. A. I will use nonverbal techniques to demonstrate that I am very interested in what Ms. Fuentes has to say. The techniques I will use will include frequent eye contact with her as we are speaking, facially responding to the points that she makes so as to encourage an open and amicable environment, leaning into the table towards her when I am speaking or when she is making a particularly important point, and allowing comfortable silences to happen so that I don't communicate too much intensity. B. I will use verbal techniques to encourage the discussion, while avoiding the communication blockers of which I am aware.
Posted by Unknown at 12:36 AM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Negligence and tort law - Essay Example Where no duty is owed there can be no liability The Structure of Negligence The definition of negligence in ordinary parlance is carelessness. Its strict legal analysis was given by Lord Wright in Lochgelly Iron and Coal Co vs. McMullan (1934): Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.negligence means more than heedless or careless conduct, whether in omission or commission: it properly connotes the complex concept of duty, breach and damage thereby suffered by the person to whom the duty was owed.Ã¢â¬ Negligence as a tort is that made up of a tripartite element structure: the defendant in being careless must have breached a duty, which results in damage and such damage mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t be too remote from the cause, (Feinman 2010, P. 34). To have breached a duty, the defendant must have owed it to the claimant and the defendant himself must have fallen below certain legal standards. The defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s actions must be tied to the legal injury suffered by the claimant such injury being worthy of compensati on. A judgement will be centred on these three concepts but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that they are separate and distinct, they overlap to a great extent. Virtually anyone can be capable of negligence: an occupier of premises, a driver, manufacturers and retailers. The Ã¢â¬Å"general conception of relationsÃ¢â¬ that give rise to a duty of care is as, per Lord Atkins, between neighbours. Ã¢â¬Å"Persons who are so closely and directly affected by my act that I ought reasonably to have them in my contemplation as being affected when I am directing my mind to acts or omissions which are called in question.Ã¢â¬ -Lord Atkins, Donoghue vs. Stevenson (1932). The duty of care generally extends only to individuals directly harmed and whose interaction with the tortfeasor is reasonably foreseeable, (University of London 2005, P.14). The conceptual structure of negligence tort has been agreed among scholarly circles to encompass five basic elements: the existence of a duty of a care, breach of this duty, factual causation, remoteness and finally legal injury. Duty of Care Until the recent case of Caparo Industries vs. Dickman (1990), duty of care was established by applying Lord AtkinÃ¢â¬â¢s Neighbour test from Donoghue vs. Stevenson (1932) which was at the root of the fault principle in Common Law jurisdictions. Lord MacMillan set out a new category of delict not particularly based on negligence per se but on the implied warranty of fitness of product, (Eren 2007, Para. 4). In Caparo vs. Dickman, the formula currently determining the duty of care as used by courts was founded. In the test, three things must be established: whether the consequences of the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s act were reasonably foreseeable, whether there is a relationship of proximity between the parties, physical or legal and whether in all the circumstances it was just fair and reasonable that the law should impose a duty. In the case, economic loss due to negligent misstatement by a co mpany accountants was held remote as there was no proximity between accountants and those who would rely on their reports, (Smith & Burns
Posted by Unknown at 11:28 PM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Service quality assessing and profiling of KPMG's organisation - Essay Example Specifically the two models are Lovelock and WirtzÃ¢â¬â¢s Flower of Services Model, and the Molecular Model developed by Shostack. KPMGÃ¢â¬â¢s attributes as service company KPMG is a service company. It possesses the characteristics as detailed by Ronen and Pass (2010, p. 845) which are herein applied and discussed. (1) Its products are not physical in nature. KPMG specializes in audit, tax and advisory services as its principal products. It also provides Ã¢â¬Å"industry insightÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â that is, the Company guides its clients in addressing the market challenges of their businesses. The services may be physically represented by the audit reports and advisories, but the content and substance, which comprise the service itself, are not physically tangible. (2) There is a large variance among KPMG and its competitors, in terms of customers, service types, service providers and service procedures. Often, audit and advisory providers specialize in a particular industry or busin ess. Furthermore accounting standards allow the accountant some discretion in their choice of accounting procedures, such as depreciation methods (Needles, Powers, & Crosson, 2010). Coupled with these small differences are the larger differences between businesses even in the same industry, which would justify the tailoring of services to that specific customer. (3) Compliance and control are not trivial. The services which KPMG extends to its clientele are of a highly specialized nature. The audit and tax procedures are strictly regulated by law and by the principles laid down by the accounting industry. Persons who serve in these capacities must be accountants duly... The firm that is analyzed in the paper is KPMG, a service company. It possesses the characteristics as detailed by Ronen and Pass which are herein applied and discussed. KPMG specializes in audit, tax and advisory services as its principal products. It also provides Ã¢â¬Å"industry insightÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â that is, the Company guides its clients in addressing the market challenges of their businesses. The services may be physically represented by the audit reports and advisories, but the content and substance, which comprise the service itself, are not physically tangible. Often, audit and advisory providers specialize in a particular industry or business. Furthermore accounting standards allow the accountant some discretion in their choice of accounting procedures, such as depreciation methods. Coupled with these small differences are the larger differences between businesses even in the same industry, which would justify the tailoring of services to that specific customer. The servi ces which KPMG extends to its clientele are of a highly specialized nature. The audit and tax procedures are strictly regulated by law and by the principles laid down by the accounting industry. Persons who serve in these capacities must be accountants duly certified by the government, who are sworn to meet the high standards of their profession, failure in which may be penalized by disbarment. Furthermore, the professionals who provide advisory services and industry insights to clients are highly skilled and possess the mandatory qualifications in the technical, market, and business fields.
Posted by Unknown at 10:20 PM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Focus on the Learner Essay 1.Group Profile Its a mixed group with a very mixed cultural background as only three students are actually from Germany. Four of the students were born in another country e.g. Lithuania, Turkey, France and Romania. They all moved to Germany as adults and all share German as a common language. The group is heterogeneous concerning the age they started learning English. Two students started learning as adults while the others started learning at school. Most of the students have learnt another language as an adult and therefore have previous language learning experience. The motivation for doing the course is quite high and the group can be divided into two groups Ã¢â¬â students who need English for their job/university and students who want to learn for their own enjoyment. They are all at upper intermediate level. Except for one student (who could be classed as a converger), the overall group could be classed as concrete learners. They enjoy the social aspects of learning and like to learn from direct experience. They are interested in the language and they enjoy games and group-work in class. The entire group could also be classed as communicative learners because they show a degree of confidence and a willingness to take risks. They are much more interested in social interaction with other speakers of the language than they are with analysis of how the language works. (Learning styles based on Keith Willing ). 2.Strengths and weaknesses Grammar The students are weak when forming the present simple (especially 3rd person singular) (e.g. I must to take the train, She like climbing, Stephen come from Australia) very often confusing it with the present continuous. (Sometimes Im reading Turkish books). Most students also have problems when using the simple past (we seed its ill, I gone to school with her, We can found this in a school, Where are you born?, She were Ã¢â¬ ¦). Some students also have problems with verb-noun collocations (e.g. She make all the housework) Vocabulary The students have a good basic knowledge of vocabulary. They can talk about themselves, where they come from, their profession, their families, experiences they have had in the past and things they like to spend more money on. (Example of good language: My picture is a technical object but I really dont know what it is used for, Because you met the Pope, you changed your mind You said dug Ã¢â¬â so it is dig, dug, dug = verb orientation). Many of the students try to translate directly from German into English (The cat was by us) and sometimes use a German word in a sentence, using it questioningly enabling other students to help out with the correct English word. The students respond very well, offering suggestions until correct answer is found. Most of the students focus on finding the exact translation of the unknown word rather than trying to paraphrase their idea. Pronunciation All the students have a strong L1 interference and speak with an accent. The group responds well to drilling the right pronunciation and where to put stress on the words. They are keen to sound natural and like repeating afterÃ the teacher. Some students pronounce the endings of words that arent necessary e.g. clothes, See instead of sea, Lus their jobs Words: 208 3.Strengths and weaknesses skills Reading The students are able to read a text fairly quickly in order to understand the overall meaning. After enquiring about a few words of vocabulary (sometimes looking this up themselves in a dictionary) they are able to answer all the questions quickly and correctly. Listening The students are able to listen to texts read to them and in most cases understand the general meaning already after the first time. After hearing the text for the second time, they are able to answer questions, in most cases correctly. The students react well to instructions and during conversation they wait patiently until their dialogue partner has finished. One student is a panicky listener, the others all seem to be relaxed listeners. Writing The students have a wide range of vocabulary appropriate for the given tasks. Their sentences are well-structured and they make few mistakes. Speaking The students try to use structured sentences. If they are confident with the vocabulary hesitation is less frequent, with new vocabulary or grammar most students hesitate frequently. The students are motivated to improve their speaking ability and they make a great effort to only speak English. Some of them use gestures when they do not know a word, others switch between German and English, using the German word to fill in the gaps in the sentence (I go with the StraÃÅ¸enbahn, I make Teig with Zimt and Ã¢â¬ ¦). 4.Recommendations Language development 1.Total English Workbook (Pre-intermediate) Antonia Clare/JJ Wilson Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers Page 8, Section 1.3Grammar : Present Simple vs Present Continuous Justification:All 3 exercises on this page help the students to distinguish between the present simple and the present continuous. It also concerns activities they can associate with 2.New Cutting Edge (Pre-intermediate Students Book) Sarah Cunningham/Peter Moor Ã¢â¬â Pearson/Longman Publishers Module 4, page 34Language Focus 1 Present continuous and present simple Justification:At the top left of the page there is a grammar exercise section where the students have to underline and give an example of the present simple/present continuous. Exercises 1 and 2 help to practice the use of them. 3.Language to go Students Book (Pre-intermediate) Gillie Cunningham/Sue Mohamed Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers Lesson 3, page 9 Ã¢â¬â The Present (Grammar focus) Justification:Exercises for the students to practice distinguishing between Present simple and Present continuous. First of all filling in the gaps, then writing their own email and finally using the language by talking in pairs 4.Total English Students Book (Pre-intermediate) Richard Acklam/Araminta Crace Ã¢â¬âPearson/Longman Publishers Chapter 1, page 14 Ã¢â¬â Review and practice Justification:Exercises for practicing both present simple and present continuous (including question-forming) 5.Clockwise Pre-intermediate Class Book Bruce McGowen Vic Richardson Ã¢â¬â Oxford University Press Chapter 25, page 65 Ã¢â¬â Present simple and continuous Justification:Students can fill in the tables with the verb and then complete the rules for using Present simple and continuous themselves in exercise 1 6.New Edition Basis for Business David Christie Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford Unit 2, pages 24 and 25 Ã¢â¬â Further study (Simple present and present continuous) Justification:On page 24 there is an explanation of when to use simple present and present continuous and on page 25 there are exercises to practice 7.New Edition Basis for Business David Christie Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford Unit 3, pages 37 and 38 Ã¢â¬â Further study (Simple past and past continuous) Justification:On page 37 there is an explanation of when to use simple past and past continuous and on page 38 there are exercises to practice 8.Powerbase Pre-intermediate David Evans Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers Unit 4, pages 30 to 33 Ã¢â¬â Going places Justification:The article on page 31 is quite interesting for the students. On page 30 they can fill-in the verbs in the past and present form and on page 32 the past simple can be practiced in exercises. 9.Business opportunities Vicki Hollett Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford Unit 5, Growth and development, pages 50 and 51 Ã¢â¬â Past experiences Justification:The article on page 31 is quite interesting for the students. On page 50 they can fill-in a time line. On page 51 there is an explanation on when to use the simple past, questions for the students to answer and discussion exercise. Skills development 10.Business opportunities Vicki Hollett Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford Unit 2, Telephoning to make arrangements, pages 23, 150 and 151 Justification: Students usually enjoy doing role play. In these exercises they work with a partner and discuss a) a conference programme and b) arranging a meeting. 11.Business opportunities Vicki Hollett Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford Unit 7, Telephoning to exchange information, page 73 Justification: Students will probably find the stories on this page quite amusing. They will then discuss any car accidents or funny incidents that they have experienced themselves. References: 1.Total English Workbook (Pre-intermediate) Antonia Clare/JJ Wilson Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers 2.New Cutting Edge (Pre-intermediate Students Book) Sarah Cunningham/Peter Moor Ã¢â¬â Pearson/Longman Publishers 3.Language to go Students Book (Pre-intermediate) Gillie Cunningham/Sue Mohamed Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers 4.Total English Students Book (Pre-intermediate) Richard Acklam/Araminta Crace Ã¢â¬âPearson/Longman Publishers 5.Clockwise Pre-intermediate Class Book Bruce McGowen Vic Richardson Ã¢â¬â Oxford University Press 6.New Edition Basis for Business David Christie Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford 7.Powerbase Pre-intermediate David Evans Ã¢â¬â Longman Publishers 8.Business opportunities Vicki Hollett Ã¢â¬â Cornelsen Oxford
Posted by Unknown at 9:08 PM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Thyroid Gland And Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Hypothyroidism is a condition characterized by abnormally low amount of the thyroid hormone synthesis. This may be due to a thyroid problem or any other reason. Thyroid hormone affects growth, development, and many cellular processes. Inadequate thyroid hormone has many consequences for the body Thyroid gland and thyroid hormone synthesis Thyroid gland has two lobes connected by an isthmus. It attaches to the thyroid cartilage and trachea. Therefore it moves with swallowing. Thyroid gland consists of follicles lined by a cuboidal epithelial cell layer. These follicles filled with colloids.Parafollicular cells situated in between follicular cells which secrete calcitonine. Thyroid gland synthesizes mainly two hormones. They are L-thyroxin/tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).T3 is the active form that acts at the cellular level and T4 is the prohormone.Iodide enters the thyroid follicles primarily through a transporter. Thyroid hormone synthesis occurs in the follicular space through a series of reactions, many of which are peroxides-mediated. Thyroid hormones stored in the colloid in the follicular space that is released from Thymoglobulin by a hydrolysis reaction which occur inside the thyroid cell. E.g. Thyroglobulin (Tgb), monoiodotyrosine (MIT), diiodotyrosine (DIT), Triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4). If there is hereditary defect of enzyme in above process, Thyroid hormone synthesis could not occur. So its leads to congenital goiter and often results in hypothyroidism. Regulation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones Thyroid hormone synthesis is regulated by another gland located in the brain called pituitary. In turn the pituitary gland in part regulated by the thyroid hormone via feedback mechanism and other gland called hypothalamus. The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin hormone (TRH), which give a signal to the pituitary gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH in turn sends a signal to the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone. If some defect occurs in one of these levels, a lack of production of thyroid hormones can cause a deficiency of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). Hypothalamus TRH down arrow Pituitary- TSH down arrow Thyroid- T4 and T3 The rate of thyroid hormone synthesis is regulated by the pituitary gland. If there is an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone circulating in the body to normal functioning, the release of TSH from the pituitary increased in order to stimulate more thyroid hormone. However, when there is a large amount of thyroid hormones in circulation, TSH level decreases and pituitary attempts to reduce the production of thyroid hormone. In people with hypothyroidism have low levels of circulating thyroid hormones. Physiological effects of thyroid hormones Ã ¢-Ã Cardiovascular system increased cardiac output and heart rate. Ã ¢-Ã skeletal system increased bone turnover and resorption. Ã ¢-Ã Respiratory maintains normal hypoxic and Hypercapnic drive in respiratory centre. Ã ¢-Ã Gastrointestinal increases gut motility. Ã ¢-Ã Blood increases red blood cell 2, 3-BPG facilitating Oxygen release to tissues. Ã ¢-Ã Neuromuscular increases speed of muscle contraction and relaxation and muscle protein turnover. Ã ¢-Ã Metabolism of carbohydrates increases hepatic Gluconeogenesis/glycolysis and intestinal glucose Absorption. Ã ¢-Ã Metabolism of lipids increased lipolysis and Cholesterol synthesis and degradation. Ã ¢-Ã Sympathetic nervous tissue increases catecholamine Sensitivity and ÃÅ½Ã ²-adrenergic receptor numbers in heart, skeletal muscle, adipose cells and lymphocytes. Reduces cardiac ÃÅ½Ã ±-adrenergic receptors. If there is a defect in the synthesis or regulation pathways or thyroid lead to many disorders. They are mainly divided in two parts. They are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid, is the overproduction of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and most often caused by the development of Graves disease which is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are produced which stimulate the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. This disease can lead to the development of toxic goiter due to the growth of the thyroid gland in response to the absence of negative feedback mechanisms. This is manifested by symptoms such as thyroid goiter, protruding eyes (exopthalmos), palpitations, excessive sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, muscle weakness and unusual sensitivity to heat. Appetite is increased. Classification of Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is often classified by association with the indicated organ dysfunction Type Origin Primary Thyroid gland The most common forms are Hashimotos thyroiditis which is an autoimmune disease and can be occur in radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism. Secondary Pituitary gland Occurs if the pituitary gland does not release enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroid hormones. Although not every case of secondary hypothyroidism has a clear-cut case, it is usually caused by damage to the pituitary gland, as by a tumor, radiation, or surgery. Secondary hypothyroidism accounts for less than 5% or 10% of hypothyroidism cases. Tertiary Hypothalamus Results when the hypothalamus fails to produce sufficient Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH prompts the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Hence may also be termed hypothalamic-pitu Autoimmune Atrophic (autoimmune) hypothyroidism. The most common cause of hypothyroidism and the associated with antithyroid auto antibodies leads to lymphoid infiltration Cancer and eventually atrophy and fibrosis. It has been six Times more common in women and the incidence increases with age. This can be associated with other autoimmune Diseases such as pernicious anemia, vitiligo and other endocrine disorders. In some cases, intermittent Hypothyroidism occurs when recovering from illness, antibodies which block the TSH receptor can sometimes be involved in the etiology. Hashimotos thyroiditis. This form of autoimmune thyroiditis, again, more common in women and the most common in the late. The average age is atrophic changes with regeneration, leading to the formation of goiter. This may be usually firm and Rubber but can vary from soft to hard. TPO antibodies very high amount (>1000 IU / L). Patients can be euthyroid or hypothyroid, but they can pass through the initial phase of the toxic Hashi toxicity, Levothyroxine therapy. The goiter may reduce the even if the patient does not Hypothyroid. Postpartum thyroiditis. Typically, this is a temporary phenomenon Observed after pregnancy. It can cause hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism or the two sequences. It is believed to cause changes in the immune system necesnecessary.In case of pregnancy, and histologically lymphocytic thyroiditis. The process is usually self-limiting, but when Conventional antibodies are there is a strong chance this procedure of permanent hypothyroidism. Postpartum Thyroiditis may be misdiagnosed as postnatal depression. Thyroid function test is done to detect this situation. Defects in hormone synthesis Iodine deficiency. Dietary iodine deficiency still exists in some areas as endemic goiter where goiter, occasionally massive is common. Patients may be euthyroid or hypothyroidism depending on the severity of iodine deficiency. The mechanism is considered borderline hypothyroidism leading to TSH stimulation and thyroid enlargement against iodine deficiency continues. Iodine deficiency is this still a problem in the Netherlands, the Western Pacific and South. East Asia for example, the mountainous regions of the Himalayas and Africa. Some countries affected by iodine deficiency, for example, China and Kazakhstan take measures providing iodine in salt, but others, such as Russia, have not yet done so. Of The 500 million with iodine deficiency in India about 2 million suffering from cretinism.Dyshormonogenesis is a rare disease is due to genetics. Defects in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, patients Develop hypothyroidism with goiter. One particular family Form is associated with sensorineural hearing loss due to the removal Mutation of chromosome 7, resulting in a defect Transporter Pendrin (Pendred syndrome author). Hypothyroidism causes many symptoms. The term myxedema refers to the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides.In the subcutaneous tissue. The classical pictures are Slow in working, dry hair, thick-skinned, deep voice, Weight gain, cold intolerance, bradycardia, and constipation. These features make the diagnosis easy. Milder symptoms, however, more common and difficult to distinguish from other causes Nonspecific tiredness. Many of the cases on the biochemical detection Screening Particular difficulties in diagnosis may occur in certain circumstances: Ã ¢-Ã Children with hypothyroidism may not classical Properties, but often have a slow growth rate, poor School performance and sometimes arrests of pubertal Development. Ã ¢-Ã Young women with hypothyroidism may not show obvious signs. Hypothyroidism is excluded in all Patients with oligomenorrhea / amenorrhea, Menorrhagia, infertility and hyperprolactinemia. Ã ¢-Ã the elderly show many clinical features that are difficult Distinct from normal aging. Investigation of primary hypothyroidism The Serum TSH is the examination of choice, a high TSH level Confirmed primary hypothyroidism. A low free T4 level confirms the hypothyroidism is (and is also essential for TSH to close a deficiency and clinical hypothyroidism is strongly suspected and TSH is normal or low).Thyroid and other organ-specific antibodies are present. Other exceptions are the following: Ã ¢-Ã Anemia, usually normochromic and normocytic In type but can macrocytic (sometimes this is by Associated pernicious anemia) or microcytic (in women, By menorrhagia) Ã ¢-Ã increased serum aspartate transferase levels, from Muscle and / or liver Ã ¢-Ã increased serum creatine kinase levels, with associated myopathy Ã ¢-Ã Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia Ã ¢-Ã Hyponatremia due to an increase in ADH and reduced Free water clearance. Treatment Replacement therapy with levothyroxine (thyroxine, that is to say, T4) is Data for life. The starting dose will depend upon the severity of the failure and the age and condition of the patient, especially their cardiac function: 100ÃÅ½Ã ¼g per day during the Young and fit, 50ÃÅ½Ã ¼g (up to 100ÃÅ½Ã ¼g after 2-4 weeks) for the small, old or weak. Patients with ischemic heart disease Illness an even lower initial dose, especially if the Hypothyroidism is a severe and prolonged. Most doctors Would then start with daily 25ÃÅ½Ã ¼g and performing serial ECG, increasing the dose at 3 to 4-week intervals as angina Not occur or worsen and the ECG is not Deteriorate. Monitoring The goal is to recover well within T4 and TSH The normal range. The adequacy of the replacement is reviewed Clinical and thyroid function tests after at least 6 weeks at a constant dose. If serum TSH remains high, the dose of T4 Should is increased in increments of 25-50 g ÃâÃ ¬ the tests Repeated 6-8 week intervals until TSH returns to normal. Complete suppression of TSH should be avoided atrial fibrillation and the risk of osteoporosis. The usual The Maintenance dose is 100 to 150 g ÃâÃ ¬ administered as a single daily Dose. An annual thyroid function test is recommended this is usually done in the first line, often assisted and in response to the district thyroid registers. Clinical improvement T4 cannot start 2 weeks or more and complete resolution of symptoms 6 months. The need for lifelong therapy should be emphasized and the possibility of other autoimmune endocrine disease development, Especially Addisons disease or pernicious anemia, Should be considered. During pregnancy, an increase of T4 Dosage of about 25-50ÃÅ½Ã ¼g is often necessary to maintain normal TSH and the need for replacement during optimal. Pregnancy is highlighted by the finding of the reduction of Cognitive function in children of mothers with elevated TSH during pregnancy. A few patients with primary hypothyroidism complain incomplete symptomatic response to T4 replacement. Combination T4 and T3 replacement is advocated in this Context, but randomized clinical trials show no consistent Benefit from the quality of life symptoms. Borderline hypothyroidism or Compensated euthyroidism Patients are often seen with a low-normal serum T4 levels and slightly elevated TSH values. Sometimes this follows surgery or radioactive iodine therapy when it can be reasonably seen as compensatory. Treatment with levothyroxine is normally recommended where the TSH is consistently above 10 mu / L, or if possible symptoms, high titers of thyroid Antibodies or lipid abnormalities are present. When the TSH is only marginally increased, the tests must be repeated three to six Months later. Conversion to overt hypothyroidism is more common in men or TPO antibodies are present in Practice, vague symptoms in patients with marginal Elevated TSH (less than 10 mu / L) rarely responds to treatment, However, a therapeutic trial of substitution may be required to confirm that the symptoms are not related to the thyroid gland. It is also is considered to be the best time (TSH level normalization, the ideal case, the former) Pregnancy, in order to avoid the side effects of the fetus.Myxedema coma severe hypothyroidism, especially in the elderly, may be with confusion and even coma. Myxedema coma is very rare. Low temperature is often there, the patient may have severe heart failure, hypoventilation, hypoglycemia, and hyponatriemia.The best treatment Controversial, there is no data, most doctors recommend T3 oral or intravenous injection, a dose of ÃâÃ ¬2, and 5-5 grams every 8 hours then, such as the above-mentioned increase. High-dose intravenous cannot be used. Other measures, although there is no proof of Include: Ã ¢-Ã Oxygen (by ventilation if necessary) Ã ¢-Ã monitoring of cardiac output and pressure Ã ¢-Ã Gradual warming Ã ¢-Ã Hydrocortisone 100 mg intravenously 8-hour Ã ¢-Ã Glucose infusion to avoid hypoglycemia. Myxedema madness Depression is common in hypothyroidism but rarely with severe hypothyroidism in the elderly can the patient be said demented or psychotic, sometimes with prominent delusions. This may occur shortly after starting T4 replacement. Screening for hypothyroidism Ã ¢-Ã the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is Approximately 1 in 3500 births. Untreated, severe Hypothyroidism produces permanent neurological and Intellectual damage (cretinism). Routine screening of the newborn with a bloodstain, like Guthrie test, a high TSH level as an indicator of primary detecting Hypothyroidism is efficient and cost effective; cretinism is prevented if T4 is started within the first few months of life. Ã ¢-Ã screening of elderly patients for thyroid dysfunction a low pick-up rate and is controversial and not currently recommended. However, patients who have undergone Thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine should receive Regular thyroid function tests, should be as those who Lithium or amiodarone therapy. Signs and symptoms early hypothyroidism is often asymptomatic, can have very mild symptoms. Subclinical hypothyroidism normal levels of thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T4) and triiodo thyronine (T3), moderate to high thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) conditions. TSH and low free T4 at a higher level; the symptoms are more obvious in clinical hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism may be associated with the following symptoms: Early Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cold intolerance, increased sensitivity to cold Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Constipation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ weight gain, water retention Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ bradycardia (low heart rate less than 65 times per minute) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Fatigue Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ decreased sweating Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Muscle cramps and joint pain Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ dry, itchy skin Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thin, brittle nails Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Quick thoughts Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ depression Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ muscle tension difference (hypotonia) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ female infertility and problems in the menstrual cycle Hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ elevated serum cholesterol Late Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ goiter Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ slow speech and a hoarse, breaking voice deepening of the voice can also be noticed. Reinke edema. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Dry puffy skin, especially in the face Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Thinning of the outer third of the eyebrows (sign of Hertoghe) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Menstrual cycle abnormalities Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Low basal body temperature Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thyroid related depression Uncommon Impaired memory Impaired cognitive function (brain fog) and inattentiveness. A slow heart rate with ECG changes including low voltage signals. Diminished cardiac output and decreased contractility Reactive ( post-prandial) hypoglycemia Hair loss slow reflexes Anemia caused by impaired hemoglobin synthesis (decreased EPO levels), impaired intestinal iron and folate absorption or B12 deficiency from pernicious anemia Yellowing of the skin due to impaired conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A (carotoderma) Difficulty swallowing(dysphagia) Shortness of breath with a shallow and slow respiratory pattern(dyphnea) Increased need for sleep Irritability and mood instability Impaired renal function with decreased glomerular filtration rate myxedema madness (a rare presentation) Decreased libido due to impairment of testicular testosterone synthesis Impairment of taste sensation and anosmia Puffy face, hands and feet (late, less common symptoms) Gynecomastia(enlarge breast tissue) Loss of hearing Diagnosis thyroid function test the only validation test diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism is thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (T4) level. However, these levels can be varying without thyroid disease. High TSH levels, the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone levels (primarily thyroxin (T4) and a small amount of iodine Thyroid three original leucine (T3)). However, measuring just TSH can diagnose secondary and tertiary thyroid function loss, resulting in the following recommended a blood test, if the TSH is normal hypothyroidism remains skeptical: Free triiodothyronine (ft3) Free thyroxin (ft4) Total T3 Total T4 Additionally, the following measurements may be needed: Free T3 from 24-hour urine catch Antithyroid antibodies for evidence of autoimmune diseases that may be damaging the thyroid gland Serum cholesterol which may be elevated in hypothyroidism Prolactin as a widely available test of pituitary function Testing for anemia, including ferritin Basal body temperature Exams and Tests A physical examination may reveal a smaller than normal thyroid gland, although sometimes the gland is normal size or even enlarged (goiter). The examination may also reveal: Brittle nails Coarse facial features Pale or dry skin, which may be cool to the touch Swelling of the arms and legs Thin and brittle hair A chest x-ray may show an enlarged heart. Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include: TSH test T4 test Lab tests may also reveal: Anemia on a complete blood count (CBC) Increased cholesterol levels Increased liver enzymes Increased prolactin Low sodium Treatment the treatment of hypothyroidism is levorotatory forms of thyroxin (thyroid hormone) (L-T4) and triiodo thyroxin liothyronine (L-T3). Thyroxin is a name, and in the USA, the most common form of thyroxin tablets. Thyroxin is a doctor of the most common drugs, wherein a synthetic thyroid hormone predetermined. This medicine can improve symptoms of thyroid deficiency such as speech delay, lack of energy, weight gain, hair loss, dry skin, cold feeling. This will also help in the treatment of goiter. It can also be used to treat certain types of thyroid cancer, surgery and other medicines. Both synthetic and animal thyroid tablets available, and may be required in patients with the additional thyroid hormone. Daily doses of thyroid hormone, doctors can monitor blood pressure, in order to help ensure that the correct dose. Thyroxin is the best 30-60 minutes before breakfast, because some foods can reduce absorption. Calcium can interfere with absorption levothryoxine. Compared with water, t he coffee can be reduced about 30% of the absorption of thyroxin. Some patients may be anti-thyroxin, in fact, they do not have good absorption sheet to solve the problem by spraying. There are several different treatment options for thyroid replacement therapy: T4 only such treatment methods include supplementary levothyroxin separately, a synthetic form. This is the current standard treatment of mainstream medicine. A combination of T4 and T3 in This treatment method involves the combination simultaneously manage two synthetic L-T4 and L-T3. Dried thyroid extract Dried thyroid extract is an animal thyroid extract; the most common is from porcine sources. It is also a combination therapy, containing a natural form of L-T4 and L-T3. Dealing with controversial T4 T3 generation has been investigating the potential benefits, but has proved to be no conclusive combination therapy benefit. Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines in 2002, the the clinical biochemical state of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences during pregnancy: L-T4 dose should be increased (usually 50 micrograms / day) maintained at 0.5 ~ 2.0 mIU / L and serum serum TSH FT4 within the normal reference interval the upper third. Doctors tend to assume that if your TSH is in the normal range, sometimes defined as high as 5.5 MIU / L has no effect on fertility. But there is an approximately 1.0 MIU / L, TSH level in healthy pregnant women Subclinical hypothyroidism there are a series of biochemical and point thyroxin treatment, the typical treatment of hypothyroidism symptoms views. Reference range has been debated. As of 2003, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (ACEE) that within the normal range of 0.3-3.0 MIU / L. There is always an excess risk of hyperthyroidism. Some studies suggest that subclinical hypothyroidism does not require treatment. In 2007, the Cochrane Collaboration, a meta-analysis found that, in addition to the no benefit of thyroid hormone replacement lipids and left ventricular function in 2002 meta-analysis checks whether subclinical hypothyroidism may increase the risk of heart disease increase, some of the parameters previously thought, a slight increase, and recommended to be updated for the current recommendations for further research with the end point of coronary heart disease. Replacement therapy the connection has been a slow release combination of T3 and T4, supporters will be able to thyroid dysfunction symptoms and functional quality of life. This is still a matter of debate, refused by the traditional medical community. Remember, the important thing when are taking thyroid hormone are: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ do not stop taking the drugs, and when you feel better. Continue the medication completely guidance of a doctor. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ If you change the brand of thyroid drugs, let your doctor know. Your levels may need to be checked. Some dietary changes can change your body absorb thyroid drugs. Contact your doctor, if you eat a lot of soy products, or in the high-fiber diet. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Thyroid medicine best on an empty stomach, and if any other drugs before one hour. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ do not take the thyroid hormone supplement fiber, calcium, iron, multivitamins, aluminum hydroxide, sulfuric acid agent, colestipol, or in combination with a bile acid drugs. You start taking replacement therapy, the doctor tells you, if you have any symptoms of increased thyroid activity (hyperthyroidism), such as Palpitations Rapid weight loss Restlessness or shakiness Sweating Myxedema coma is a medical emergency; the thyroid hormone the body becomes very low. Intravenous replacement thyroid hormone and steroids. Some patients may need support therapy (oxygen, breathing assistance, fluid replacement) and intensive care. Outlook (prognosis) in most cases, thyroid levels to normal, and appropriate treatment. However, thyroid hormone replacement for the rest of life.Myxedema coma can result in death. Possible complications Hypothyroidism, myxedema coma, the most severe form is rare. This can be caused by infection, illness, exposure to cold, or certain medications in untreated hypothyroidism. The symptoms and signs of myxedema coma include: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ room temperature Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Reduce breathing Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ low blood pressure Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ hypoglycemia Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ unresponsive Other complications include: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Heart disease Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Increased risk of infection Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Infertility Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ abortion Untreated hypothyroidism are at increased risk: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ gave birth to birth defects Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ heart disease, the higher the level of LDL (bad cholesterol) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ heart failure Too much thyroid hormone treatment are at risk of angina or a heart attack, as well as the risk of osteoporosis(the bone thinning).
Posted by Unknown at 7:56 PM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Martin Luther MARTIN LUTHER, the greatest of the Protestant reformers of the 16th century, was born at Eisleben, on the 10th of November 1483. His father was a miner in humble circumstances; his mother, as Melanchthon records, was a woman of exemplary virtue, and esteemed in her walk of life. Shortly after Martin's birth, his parents removed to Mansfield, where their circumstances ere long improved by industry and perseverance. Their son was sent to school; and both at home and at school his training was of a severe and hardening character. When he reached his eighteenth year, he entered the university at Erfurt, with a view of qualifying himself for the legal profession. He went through the usual studies in the classics and the schoolmen, and took his degree as Doctor of Philosophy, or Master of Arts, in 1505, when he was twenty-one years of age. Previous to this, however, a profound change of feeling had begun in him. Chancing one day to examine the vulgate version of the Bible in the University Library, he saw with astonishment that there were more gospels and epistles than in the lectionaries. He was arrested by the contents of his newly found treasure. His heart was deeply touched, and he resolved to devote himself to a spiritual life. He separated himself trom his friends and fellow-students, and withdrew into the Augustine convent at Erfurt. Here he spent the next three years of his life - years of peculiar interest and significance, for it was during this period that he laid in the study of the Bible and of Augustine, the foundation of those doctrinal convictions which were afterwards to rouse and strengthen him in his struggles against the papacy. He describes very vividly the crisis through which he passed, the burden of sin which so long lay upon him, "too heavy to be borne;" and the relief that he at length found in the clear understanding of the "forgiveness of sins" through the grace of Christ. In the year 1507, Luther was ordained a priest, and in the following year he moved to Wittenberg, destined to derive its chief celebrity from his name. He became a teacher in the new university, founded there by the Elector Frederick of Saxony. In 1510 or 1511, he was sent on a mission to Rome, and he has described yery vividly what he saw and heard there. On his return from Rome, he was made a Doctor of the Holy Scriptures, and his career as a reformer may be said to have commenced.
Posted by Unknown at 8:33 PM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
People use and rely on the Internet is so many ways today; it is difficult to imagine what life was like when it did not exist. The emergence of the Internet has impacted the world in many ways including eliminating a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s need to visit a library, possibly costing people a job when searching for employment, providing a lack or privacy, creating a new method of communication, presenting new ways to commit a crime, and even an easier way to spend more money on items many people do not really need. Our world has changed drastically since the creation of the Internet, and over time as technology advances, it is going to be amazing to see what else society will be able to do. The Internet has brought an end to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ need to go to the library and do research for school. Entering college I was always worried about my first research paper for English because I never went to the library and did actual intense research. But once I received the first research assignment, I soon realized I still did not need to take trips to the library unless I am having trouble using the website provided by Drexel to find useful sources. It is unfortunate that most students do not know how to do research in a library when not that long ago, books were the only way to find information. The Internet is beneficial in many ways but there are also some negative aspects that many people fail to realize before it is too late and cost them a job. Due to the increased use of the Internet and social media, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives have been impacted due to the information being posted. People now have to be aware of what they post onto the web because once it is posted; it is on the web forever. Employers even look at employee candidates social media page to see if t... ... that allows people to download free music, not much is being accomplished because a new website is created the next day to do the same thing. Not only does the Internet make it easier to do research for a project but it also makes shopping faster and more efficient. The ability to buy almost anything online has reduced the amount of people that actually leave their house to buy things. If Black Friday was not enough for people to go crazy and spend money, Cyber Monday was created for those who still had money left to receive great deals from the comfort of their own home without waiting in any ridiculous lines. There are both positive and negative results to the Internet, but as long as people are responsible, it can be a great tool in almost any aspect of life. It will truly be amazing to see what other advances technology will create in just the next few years.
Posted by Unknown at 9:54 PM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Schizophrenia inÃ The Yellow Wallpaper Ã Ã Ã Ã Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s "The Yellow Wall-Paper," does more than just tell the story of a woman who suffers at the hands of 19th century quack medicine. Gilman created a protagonist with real emotions and a real psych that can be examined and analyzed in the context of modern psychology. In fact, to understand the psychology of the unnamed protagonist is to be well on the way to understanding the story itself. "The Yellow Wall-Paper," written in first-person narrative, charts the psychological state of the protagonist as she slowly deteriorates into schizophrenia (a disintegration of the personality). Schizophrenia manifests itself through a number of symptoms. One of the first symptoms that the narrator in "The Yellow Wall-Paper" exhibits is thought disorder. Thought disorder can range in severity anywhere from a vague muddiness of thinking to a total breakdown of mental processes. The first real hint that the protagonist is having trouble controlling her mental faculties is when she says, "I get unreasonably angry with John sometimes . . . I take pains to control myself Ã¢â¬â before him, at least, and that makes me very tired" (Gilman 426). Her mental state is again revealed a few pages later when she states, "It is getting to be a great effort for me to think straight" (Gilman 430). Related to thought disorder is obsession, which the protagonist displays in her relentless thoughts about the yellow wallpaper which covers her bedroom walls. The narrator begins her obsession with the yellow wallpaper from the very beginning of the story. "I never saw a worse paper in my life," she says. "It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irri... ...press her, she had to discard the personality that was meek and mild. It is quite possible within the realm of psychological theory that the stress of childbirth, coupled with post-partum depression and the mental strain of having to repress her emotions triggered the schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is the perfect choice because it explains why the protagonist behaves the way she does. At the same time, it shows the problems that occur when a person is oppressed for so long, and also frees the narrator from the bonds of a personality that did not allow her to express herself as a human being. Works Cited Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wall-Paper." Fiction 100: An Anthology of Short Stories. 4th ed. ed. James H. Pickering. New York: MacMillan, 1985. 426-34. Kristal, Leonard, ed. The ABC of Psychology. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1982. Ã
Posted by Unknown at 11:15 PM
Be able to identify agreed ways to gain entry to and leave individuals homes Entry and departure to the service users home will have been agreed at the initial risk assessment and if a key safe is installed then the code will have been disclosed. Other ways of entry could be by being let in by a relative or family member and this should be advised by the carerÃ¢â¬â¢s office. This should also be documented in the care plan folder. Agreed times and preferences in respect of entry and departure will also be documented in the care plan folder Be able to gain entry to an individuals hom Entry and departure will be usually by use of a key safe, a relative, home manager or the service user themselves. The service user will usually be expecting a visit by their carer who should always introduce themselves to the service user and show their identity card. Be able to take appropriate action when unable to gain entry to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s home If the carer is unable to gain entry then they should ring their office and inform them of the problem. The office will then attempt to contact the service user by telephone and if this is unsuccessful then a relative of registered key holder will be informed. In some cases it may be necessary to contact the emergency services if there is immediate cause for concern. These are the usual agreed ways of working in my organisation. It will be crucial to record and report any difficulties to the office so this information can be shared with others on a need to know basis. Read more:Ã Describe How Accessing a Range of Services and Facilities Be able to deal with emergencies encountered after gaining entry If the carer finds themselves in an emergency situation after gaining entry then depending on the type of emergency then they should contact the appropriate emergency service and their office so the that the event/incident can be reported and recorded. The type of emergency could be that the service user or family member is seriously ill or has fallen, there may be a fire. In the case of a known self harming service user there could be a suicide attempt Health and safety procedures in respect of the carer and service user to be adhered to at all times Be able to ensure security when leaving individuals homes The carer should ensure that the house is securely locked and that any windows should be closed unless otherwise advised by the service user. Keys should be replaced in the key safe and the key safe should be cleared. Be able to review the procedures for entering and leaving an individuals home The carer should be mindful at all times and should they suspect a breach in security or feel that the entry procedure should be reviewed then they should discuss this with the service user and report any agreed changes of codes and discuss any change in entry routine with their Manager.
Posted by Unknown at 1:34 AM
Monday, September 16, 2019
I am doing my project on endangered species. In the world there are a lot of endangered species for example: birds, insects, tigers, whales and many more. I have learned many things from this project on how the animals get endangered and ways how to help these animals. I learned that we should recycle because the more trees that we cut down the more homes for animals we demolish. We should all stop hunting animals for pleasure and just watch them have fun for pleasure. Endangered Species means when an animal or a plant of any kind is in danger of extinction for ever and is in danger to never be seen again. An endangered specie can get extinct any time, if it is endangered today it might be extinct tomorrow or extinct in the future. Or it might not happen like that. If you leave it alone and do not harm it, it might have babyÃ¢â¬ s and have more of its kind. A species is named endangered when of its kind occurs in a low number. About 1000 species in the world are named endangered, or are in threat to be extinct. I never knew that some kinds of birds were in danger. We can help these animals and plants by making laws that you are not allowed to hunt or kill any animal that is in danger of extinction. Only since the 19th century has there been worldwide concern about the case of species in their natural environments. Finally in 1916 they made a law called Migratory Bird Treaty. They had this law in United States, Great Britain, Canada, and later in Mexico. This law was made so that people can not kill animals that are endangered. This law did not work that well because the animals that were endangered were not put in zooÃ¢â¬ s. People still killed theses animals not caring that they were in danger of becoming extinct. In 1973 a another law came down where a 100 nations came together and were working together to save endangered species that were being imported and exported. This organization was known as CITES. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The United States Fish and wildlife Service had to assist foreign countries on managing endangered animals. Here is a list of endangered species. This list is only describing a few examples. There were to many animals that were endangered to write about. So I took the most popular animals and decided to write about them. Birds provide several modern examples of how extinction can occur. One of the best known is the passenger pigeon, a species that occurred in greater numbers than any other bird or mammal for which there are records. Passenger pigeons looked very similar to mourning doves, a close relative that is still common. One distinction a requirement for nesting in colonies which finally led to the destruction of the passenger pigeon. The extinction of the passenger pigeon is a commentary on the mistaken belief that if a species occurs in large numbers it is not necessary to be concerned about its welfare. The last member of the species died in 1914. In 1918 the last Carolina parakeet died. This colorful green bird with an orange or yellow head was seen throughout the eastern United States in the 1800s. Parakeets were shot for their beautiful feathers and because they damaged crops. The ivory-billed woodpecker, the largest woodpecker to inhabit North America, was believed to be extinct in the United States, they are also seen in remote areas of the South. The cause of its disappearance is presumed to be the major habitat destruction that resulted from logging of large Southern forests. Ivory-bills required large tracts of land with old trees and were unable to cope with timbering activities. The world's last dusky seaside sparrow died in Florida in June 1987 because its habitat, Florida's coastal salt marsh, was severely depleted. In the early 1990s the spotted owl of the United States Pacific Northwest sparked debate between conservationists concerned with the survival of this threatened animal and the local timber industry workers which were worried in loosing their jobs. About 20 insects, most of them butterflies, are endangered species. Populations of two butterfly species the San Bruno elfin and the mission blue are very few now because they have been killed. The These animals are dying because we walk over were they live, we step on there food, we cut down there homes. FWS is looking after the few butterflies that are left. The recovery plan also provides for research programs designed to understand the requirements of each species so that proper habitat management decisions can be made. More than 90 species of United States fishes, most restricted to specific bodies of water, are in danger of extinction. Most live in deserts of the Southwest, where water is rare. Many species of desert fishes became extinct before protective measures were taken. The desert fishes do not have that much of a chance to live because in the desert when the sun gets hot the water starts to disappear. Now a days the NFW is looking after the fishes that live in the desert. Whales are endangered species too. There are very little whales left in the world. People still go hunting for them when the law says that you can kill them. People use whales for ivory for oil and to make lip stick and more stuff that women wear. More than 300 mammals of the world are recognized as threatened or endangered. These include eight whales, more than two dozen apes and monkeys, and more than 20 deer, as well as leopards, tigers, elephants, and other large mammals whose numbers have been severely reduced by overhunting and habitat destruction. Included among United States mammals that are protected to some degree are the gray wolf, the Florida panther, and the grizzly bear. The 1973 Endangered Species Act officially addressed the issue of why an endangered species of plant or animal should be offered formal protection. As stated in the act, such species Ã¢â¬Å"are of esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the Nation and its people.Ã¢â¬ Numerous species are medically or agriculturally significant because of their unique properties or traits. It cannot be predicted when a species might be discovered to be of direct value to humans. Once a species becomes extinct, however, the opportunity is lost forever. As scientists try to solve the twisted network of plant-animal relationships in the natural world, more and more species are discovered to have a necessary, and often unsuspected, dependence on other species. Obviously, if the extinction of one species is permitted through rapid, human-caused activities that do not permit natural adjust and development to occur, certain other species may also be affected. This can result in a Ã¢â¬Å"domino effectÃ¢â¬ of likely extinctionÃ¢â¬ s. Through breeding programs and introduction of animals into their natural habitats, several species, such as the black-footed ferret, have been brought back from the edge of extinction. Several more species undergoing such programs, such as the California condor, are soon expected to be introduced into the wild and to have similar success. By 1990 the FWS had compiled a list of almost 1,000 species of endangered or threatened animals (of which more than 500 are found only in foreign countries), and some 200 recovery programs were in effect. If fish got extinct than polar bears might get endangered because polar bears prey on fish. They eat the fish to stay alive. The eight whales that are endangered some of them might go extinct because they might eat fish. So if fish go extinct the world would have a lot of changes. If some different kind of insects go extinct than other kinds of insects would go extinct because insects eat insects. And some birds might go endangered because birds eat insects. If birds go endangered or get extinct than other animals that eat birds might get endangered because they have nothing to eat. It would go like a circle because meat eating animals will get endangered. In order to save endangered species hunting should be banned. There should be no trades in furs and animal skin. The animals natural habitat should not be destroyed. These animals should be allowed to be free to do as they please! There should also be harsh fines for anyone who even tries to kill an endangered specie. The government should also set up some fund for endangered species where when money is needed to preserve the land or habitat of the endangered animals there will be money available to use. Money should also be invested in research funds which would try to find solutions in preserving these animals. From my point of view if scientists could prefect coloning they can then use that method to protect endangered species from becoming instinct! However there needs to be more research done in this section before anyone can go along with this solution!
Posted by Unknown at 3:53 AM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
HOLY TRINITY SCHOOL 4U BIOLOGY 2012/2013 Independent Study Project: Homeostasis, Maintaining Balance In these investigations, students will be involved in the initiating and planning of a scientific study. You will be performing library research, then designing and implementing a study in which you will record, analyze, interpret, and communicate your research and data. A formal written report as well as an oral presentation of this information to your peers will be required.Students will be expected to demonstrate skill in: Ã¢â¬â using safe lab techniques Ã¢â¬â designing properly controlled investigations to test hypotheses concerning selected variables Ã¢â¬â describing, recording and interpreting data from the above investigations Ã¢â¬â writing a formal report of their findings Ã¢â¬â preparing and teaching information to their classmates on their study topic The area of Homeostasis gives opportunity for varied and interesting research.Many different types of organism s are available for study, from invertebrates such as worms or insects, to larger organisms like plants, mice, dogs, cats, horses, or humans. Topics that can be investigated are not restricted to this broad area, but might look at areas such as Ã¢â¬ ¢ homeostatic processes involved in maintaining water, ionic, thermal, and acid-base equilibria in response to both a changing environment and medical treatments (e. g. investigate the feedback mechanisms involved in water balance or thermo-regulation; study the buffering system of blood; investigate the operation of the nervous system or endocrine system; study how chemotherapy affects homeostasis); Ã¢â¬ ¢ the mammalian immunological response to a viral or bacterial infection; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the impact of environmental factors such as allergens on homeostasis within an organism. Ã¢â¬ ¢ physiological effects of drinking coffee or using sports drinks and performance Ã¢â¬ ¢ invertebrate responses to external stimuli (e. g. , nstinctive behavi our in response to chemical stimuli or light); Ã¢â¬ ¢ impact of environmental factors on the growth and propagation of bacteria or plants Ã¢â¬ ¢ the effect of dietary supplements on health; study the effect of taking large quantities of vitamins or amino acids; determine whether substances or practices people use to cope with stress actually work Students may work in pairs, but you should be aware that one report is submitted, with both partners receiving the same mark. There are both benefits and pitfalls to working with a partner, so think carefully about this option if you decide to take it. I will expect the paper to be between 2000-4000 words in length, but the presentation length will not be doubled). Please take note of the following requirements and timelines. Although all due dates are negotiable well in advance, I will expect people to commit to them and maintain a progressive approach to their work. Specific Requirements: Topic proposal-completed sheet stating the organ ism and problem you plan to investigate Journal-a diary recording: Date Description (BRIEFLY) Time spent on a daily basis e. . Jan. 14 surfed Web for topics 30 minutes Resources-identify at least two books, two journals and two Internet sources, with a paragraph describing the information you expect to use from each of them (i. e. six paragraphs) Method-outline the actual equipment, procedures, and measurements to be done Rough notes-hand written outline of essay (NOT a rough draft) or digital files (CD, USB, whatever) Final paper-1000 to 2000 words, plus table of contents, data, charts, graphs proper referencing with Reference List Presentation -a ten minute (max. ) summary of your work, including a one-page handout for the class. Due Dates:Topic proposal +Journal entriesMon/Tues, Jan. 21/22 Resources +Journal entriesThurs/Fri Jan. 31/Feb 1 Method +Journal entriesWed/Thurs Feb. 6/7 Rough notes+Journal entriesWed/Thurs Mar. 6/7 Final paper+Journal completeWed/Thurs, Apr. 10/11 Prese ntations Wed, Fri, Tues Apr. 10, 12, 16 Thur, Mon, WedApr. 11, 15, 17
Posted by Unknown at 6:12 AM
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Biographical information about the author: William Shakespeare, born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England, was an English poet and playwright. Shakespeare was believed to have been educated at the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s New School in Stratford about a quarter-mile from his home. At the age of 18, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste because six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter named Susanna.About two years later they had twins, a boy and a girl, and the boy died of unknown causes at the age of 11. It is not known when Shakespeare started writing but several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592. Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford during this time of his career. In 1599 he moved to Southwark while his company constructed the Global Theatre there. After 1610, Shakespeare wrote very few okays before his death on April 23, 1616. Historical information about the period of publicat ion:Queen Elizabeth was in rein during this time period from 1559-1603. She was very fond of Shakespeare and loved his works. The inspiration of the play Twelfth Night was more than likely influenced by the queen wanting a play related to the holiday season. Twelfth Night is a Christian holiday that takes place on the 12th day after Christmas. On this day the roles in society are flipped. Kings and queens dress up as peasants and men and women dress up as each other. At the beginning of the Twelfth Night festival a cake that contains a bean is eaten. The person who finds the bean would be the ruler of the feast. Midnight marks the end of their rule and everything goes back to normal. Characteristics of the genre:A Shakespearean Comedy normally has a happy ending that involves marriages between the unmarried characters. There tends to be a greater emphasis onÃ situations than characters; there is almost always a clever servant; multiple, intertwining plots; and the main issue in Tw elfth Night, deception among characters. Plot Summary:After a huge storm at sea, a young woman named Viola finds herself washed up on a shore with the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s captain. Here she grieves the loss of her twin brother Sebastian who she believes died in the storm. The Captain informs her that they are in Illyria and he helps Viola disguise herself so that she may go to a man named Duke Orsino and become his servant. During this 3 month period Viola, now known as Cesario, has to persuade Lady Olivia, the woman Duke Orsino is in love with, to marry him or at least take some interest. Olivia is also grieving her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and does not want to see any man that Orsino sends to her.However, she takes a liking to Cesario and falls in love with him. Unfortunately, Cesario (Viola) is now in love with Orsino, who loves Olivia, who loves Cesario. A crazy love triangle. Meanwhile, we meet other people in OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s court such as her uncle Sir Toby Belch; the maid Maria; TobyÃ ¢â¬â¢s friend Sir Andrew Aguecheek who is trying to court Olivia; Feste, OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s fool; and Malvolio, the arrogant and self-centered steward of OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s household. Since Malvolio likes to ruin the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s fun, Maria forges a letter, supposedly from Olivia, to make Malvolio think Olivia is in love with him.Malvolio finds this letter, thinking it is for him, and, wanting to marry Olivia, follows its commands of dressing in yellow stocking, cross-gartering, to smile constantly, and to not explain his actions to no one. Once Olivia sees him behaving so strangely she thinks that he has gone mad. Meanwhile, Sebastian, who we find to still be alive but believes his sister Viola to be dead, arrives in Illyria along with his friend Antonio. Antonio has been taking care for Sebastian since the shipwreck and is passionately (and some think sexually) attached to Sebastian; so much so that he follows him to OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s court, in spite of the fact that he and Orsino are old enemies.Once Sir Andrew sees that Olivia has taken a liking to Cesario he challenges Cesario to a duel. Sir Toby loves to see Sir Andrew make a fool of himself so he encourages Sir Andrew to continue. However, when Sebastian-who looks just like his disguised sister Viola-, appears he ends up fighting Sir Andrew and Sir Toby because they think he is Cesario. Olivia shows up seeing what is going onÃ and asks Sebastian, who she thinks is Cesario, to marry her. Sebastian is very confused because he has never seen her before but he says that he will go with her to be married because of her wealth and beauty.Meanwhile, Antonia has been arrested and begs Cesario to help him because he thinks Cesario is Sebastian. Viola says she does not know who Antonio is and Antonio is taken away while he says that Sebastian has betrayed him. We soon learn that Malvolio has been locked away in a small dark room and although the group has tormented him throughout his time in there, Sir Toby allows Malvolio to send a letter to Olivia asking to be released. Orsino now decides to go visit Olivia and he brings Viola (still disguised as Cesario) and other men in his court. Olivia states that Cesario is her new husband when in reality it is her brother Sebastian.Orsino is furious but then Sebastian appears and everyone is awestruck. Viola and Sebastian are reunited and Orsino can officially express his love for Viola now that he knows she is a woman. We also figure out that Sir Toby and Maria have been married. Finally, Malvolio shows up and the trick that took place on him is revealed. Malvolio storms off saying he will seek revenge and he leaves everyone else happy and joyful.Describe the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s style: ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s first plays were written in the same style as those who were also writing at that period of time. However, he soon began to use the traditional styles in his own unique way. Most say that Twelfth Night is one a ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most poetical and mu sical plays. This basically means that Shakespeare decided to make some of the major characters sound more like amazing poets than average people. In this case he is using them to make fun of the shallowness of love poetry. An example that demonstrates the style:Ã¢â¬Å" Away before me to sweet beds of flowers: Love-thoughts lie rich when canopied with bowers.Ã¢â¬ (1.1.4) Memorable Quotations Quotation Significance Ã¢â¬Å"And all is semblative a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s part.Ã¢â¬ Orsino is telling Cesario (Viola) to woo Lady Olivia and he tells him that he is much like a woman and therefore will be more appealing than if he went himself. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Time, thou must untangle this, not I. It is too hard a knot for me tÃ¢â¬â¢ untie!Ã¢â¬ Viola realizes the love triangle she has gotten herself into and says that only time can fix it. Ã¢â¬Å"I hate ingratitude more in a man Than lying, vainness, babbling, drunkenness, Or any taint of voice whose strong corruption Inhabits our frail blood.Ã¢ â¬ Cesario is defending himself against Antonio who is charging Cesario of ingratitude. Ã¢â¬Å"What relish is in this? How runs the streamÃ¢â¬ ¦If if be thus to dream, still let me sleep!Ã¢â¬ Sebastian is very confused but yet happy about Olivia wanting to marry him. He has never seen her before but she is in love with him. Ã¢â¬Å"Thus the whirligig of time brings in his revengesÃ¢â¬ Setting Significance of the opening scene Twelfth Night takes place in an imaginary place called Illyria. Illyria also happens to correspond to a place on the Adriatic coast which most Elizabethans knew nothing about and most people from London have never been there. This makes it the perfect location for the mysteries of this play.Viola decided to make a new life in this unfamiliar Dukedom. The same thing that draws her to Illyria, Shakespeare uses that to draw the audience in; the mystery, romance, and dreaminess of far-off places. One strange setting would be when the audience sees the out o f control crew at OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s home and also her weird behavior. Another setting that seemed to be over the top would be Duke Orsino at his home listening to his live band while lying of the couch daydreaming about being in love. In the opening scene the audience meets Duke Orsino and we see that the woman he loves, Lady Olivia, is grieving over the death of her brother therefore she has decided not to get married for another seven years.Orsino, being obsessed with Olivia, wants to just lie around on beds of flowers, listening to music and dreaming of Olivia. This shows the audience of the persistence Orsino has and although he seems to be deeply in love with Olivia he will quickly change his mind. Meanwhile, on the Illyrian sea coast Viola and her twin brother Sebastian are in a shipwreck. Viola was found and rescued but she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know where her brother is. Although the captain tells Viola that Sebastian may still be alive she does not believe it to be so. In the meanti me, however, she needs to find a way to support herself in Illyria. This leads her to OrsinoÃ¢â¬â¢s court and thus the beginning of what will soon be a crazy love triangle. SymbolsSignificance of the ending/closing scene A pearl- A token of love; romantic attachmentDarkness of MalvolioÃ¢â¬â¢s Prison- insanity; madnessChanges of Clothing- class distinction; power, change in gender During the closing scene everyone finds out that Cesario is really Viola (a female) and that Sebastian is the Ã¢â¬Å"real manÃ¢â¬ of the family. Olivia finds out that she was in love with a woman but ended up marrying her twin brother on accident. Of course she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind because she is happy regardless. Duke Orsino is glad because he can now express the feelings he has been having for Cesario because he is now Viola. Most of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s comedies end in a Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ way so he had to find some kind of what to bring happiness to the end of this play. The happines s lies in the marriage of Olivia andÃ Sebastian, the secret marriage of Sir Toby and Maria, and the marriage of Duke Orsino and Viola. Possible ThemesLove out of Suffering- Despite the happy ending, Shakespeare shows that love can cause pain Uncertainty of Gender- Viola disguising herself as a man; Olivia ends up being in love with a woman, even if she thinks Viola is a man; Orsino comments on CesarioÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty, which suggests that he is attracted to Viola even though she is still in disguise.
Posted by Unknown at 8:31 AM
Friday, September 13, 2019
Interlanguage and teaching the language system - Coursework Example 3. Vocabulary acquisition in the foreign language is not as fluent or as quick as the native language. There are two primary reasons that can be identified as responsible for this phenomenon. First, the self consciousness of the foreign language learner, which makes him or her anxious about appearing foolish while speaking the second language and thereby restricts rapid learning, Second is the differences in grammatical structures between the two languages, which would make it slower for the foreign language learner to pick up vocabulary in the foreign language. Moreover, the differences in meaning of words in different socio cultural contexts and the need to express meaning correctly may slow down the process of vocabulary acquisition. 4. Pragmatics refers to the social interactions that take place in every language, where words are attributed a meaning that is comprised of not merely the grammatical meaning of a word but also the social context o its expression. 5. I visited a frie nd in Saudi Arabia and expressed admiration for his car. I intended this as a compliment in accordance with English language culture, but as per the Saudi culture, the expression of admiration meant a desire to own the object. As a result, my friend forced me to take his car. 6. Pronunciation depends on auditory discrimination which comes naturally when learning the first language; because of constant exposure to the language in the surrounding environment. Pronunciation patterns in the native language are the most deeply set and this would influence the kind of pronunciation of the second language learner. Native patterns would have a stronger impact because exposure to the second language pronunciation is also limited to classes. Hence, the two most important factors influencing pronunciation would be (a) native language and (b) time available for learning second language. 7. In my view, it is more important for second language learners to strive for intelligibility. Native level pronunciation is likely to take an enormous amount of time, especially as they are bereft of the high level of immersion and the childhood readiness and receptivity to their native language. Although it is beneficial for second language learners to strive for the fluency of native speakers, their communication would be hindered if they focused too much upon this objective, because they would become excessively conscious of errors and this would impede their learning. 8. The correction of pronunciation depends very much upon the context within which such correction occurs. When it is done in a derogatory manner or when carried out in front of other people, it feels humiliating and makes a learner even more hesitant about the learning. When correction of pronunciation is done in a friendly spirit, where it is deemed natural to make mistakes, the learner is more likely to respond positively Ã¢â¬â hence positive rather than negative criticism is vital. Activity 5: The book titled Ã¢â ¬Å"Cambridge grammar of EnglishÃ¢â¬ teaches grammar in the traditional way that has been used, i.e, through offering explanations of the rules of grammar. The objective fo the book is the same as that of any foreign language learning course, i.e, to provide for the ultimate end objective for a learner to learn conversation in the language. There is also a CD provided with the book, to enable learners to listen to the sound of the language. The book however works on the principle of providing the general
Posted by Unknown at 10:49 AM